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Instructor Manual


This Manual was written by Dr. Williams based on his experience training officers in the Tactical Anatomy Systems Shooting With Xray Vision (SXRV) method. It is intended to give any law enforcement or military firearms instructor the material he needs to teach three-dimensional target visualization to his personnel. Designed to be a ‘turn-key’ package, the manual consists of a 127-page full-color printed textbook and a CD-ROM with three dynamic PowerPoint slide presentations. The Manual is broken down into 5 lesson plans, with supplementary and background material to aid the instructor in presenting the lessons to his classes.

While the original Tactical Anatomy training system was designed to be an 8-hour class that would take trainees from ground zero to full 3D visualization–and this can still be done–the Manual provides options that allow the instructor to go with a half-day (4-hr) introductory course, a full-day (8-hr) basic course, or a two day (16-hr) advanced course.

The Manual begins with Dr. Williams’ Introduction to the principles and theory of Adult Learning, and gives a strong treatment on the safety considerations the instructor must build into his lesson plans to ensure safe and effective learning.

The body of the Manual is broken down into five separate lessons:

Lesson 1, ‘Rationale’.

  • Explains why traditional ‘square-range’ training is failing to prepare personnel for real-world firearms combat
  • Ethics of the use of deadly force
  • Realities of gunshot wounding and incapacitation
  • Dynamic realities of gunfights
  • How 3D target visualization is a vital aid to gunfight supremacy

Lesson 2, ‘Building an Anatomic Model’

  • is a step-by-step guide–complete with 53 full-color illustrations–to guide the instructor in building a three-dimensional anatomy model in the classroom in less than an hour.
  • Supported by two PowerPoint presentations on the CD-ROM for the instructor to use as his teaching resources
  • This lesson gives the instructor all the information he needs to bring 3D anatomy to life in the classroom.

Lesson 3, ‘Laser Sight Exercise’

  • The first step in translating 2D visualization to 3D visualization in the trainees’ mind’s eye.
  • Innovative laser sighting methodology.
  • Includes lesson plan, tips and techniques for the instructor.

Lesson 4, ‘Force on Force Exercises’

  • Actually two lessons in one.
  • Computer simulator training scenarios (FATS, MILO, etc.)
  • Force-on-force / reality based training (RBT) exercises using non-lethal training ammunition (NLTA) such as SIMUNITION.
  • The two components of Lesson 4 may be stacked, or taught separately as stand-alone modules.
  • Depending on class size and resources available, this lesson provides instructional options to branch out into a two-day class if time and resources permit.

Lesson 5, ‘After Action Review’

  • A guide to consolidating your trainees’ learning at the end of the day.
  • Safety and ‘homework’ issues are hard-wired.

The manual is priced at $39.95 and is available for immediate download. It includes powerpoint files that can be used during class.


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Why More Bullets Are Better Than Less

I know, I know, the title is grammatically incorrect. It should be “fewer” bullets. But I’m no English teacher, so please bear with me. 

Here’s the deal: most people I know who carry a handgun daily, whether LEO’s or private citizens, don’t carry enough ammunition. If you’ve followed my blog, or taken one of my classes, or you’ve listened to people who’ve BTDT and carry a boatload of ammo everywhere they go, you should know this. But I haven’t covered this topic in a while, so I’m going to put it out there again for those who might have missed it last time around. 

This blog entry was prompted by an article on a police website last week about an Illinois cop who got into a shootout with a “highly motivated” felon who was determined not to go down. The cop hit the felon multiple times with his service handgun, a high-capacity .45 ACP, and according to the ME at least 6 of those hits were fatal wounds. But the guy just kept on coming at him with murderous intent until the cop finally put a bullet in the felon’s brainpan, and finished the fight.

I wish I could say that this was an exceptional case… but it wasn’t, and it isn’t.

The plain truth is this: contrary to internet mythology, a substantial minority of “good” gunfights involve dozens of shots fired, if not scores of shots fired. For example, in the Pennsylvania shoot-out that made internet rounds several years ago (and which I review as core material in my Shooting WIth Xray Vision classes), a total of 107 rounds of ammunition were fired by 3 police officers, while the single felon fired in excess of 30 rounds back at them. The subject was hit 17 times and, yes, he died of his wounds en route to hospital, but he was still fighting the cops when they put the cuffs on him.  

My good colleague Chief Jeff Chudwin shows a video in one of his classes in which a lone officer gets into a shootout with a felon and is forced to take cover behind his vehicle with only the ammunition on his person, i.e., one hi-capacity magazine in his service handgun and two more mags on his belt. He ran out of ammunition within 2 minutes, and the only thing that prevented his adversary from stalking him down and murdering him was the arrival of a second officer just as he ran out of bullets.

I could go on, and on, and on. I have literally dozens of similar cases related to me. Not from “a friend of a friend”, but by the involved officers themselves.

Ammunition is dissipated amazingly rapidly in a gunfight. If you don’t put your adversary down, and I mean down, with your first 2 to 5 rounds, you’re almost certainly going to be dealing with incoming fire. Which means you’re going to be moving to cover, and your adversary is going to be moving, too. Hit ratios drop into the low single digits when both fighters are moving, the statistics show. And you know you’re going to be firing while moving to cover, because you want to keep your enemy off-balance so he can’t draw a good bead on you while you do so. 

So let’s do the math. Your attacker points his gun, you see a opportunity to fight, so you draw and fire a double tap to his “center of mass”. He acts like you didn’t hit him and fires back. Suddenly you’re both moving to cover and rounds are going both ways. Let’s say your route to cover was 5 yards and you fired rounds as fast as you could while getting there. That’s 2 initial rounds, then another 8 rounds while moving to cover. If you’ve got a hi-cap auto, you’re probably OK now without a tactical reload; if you’re carrying a revolver or a single-stack 1911, you were empty before you got to cover. If your enemy has a hi-cap auto and he heard your hammer going snap-snap-snap he knows he’s got you, and while you’re trying to reload (assuming you have a spare mag or speedloader), he may well close in on you and execute you.

It happened to the California Highway Patrol troopers at Newhall in 1970, kids, and it can just as easily happen to you. Unless you prepare for the worst.  


When I was still an active member of my county’s SWAT team in Wisconsin, on my armor vest I carried 9 single-stack magazines for my SIG P220 service handgun (72 rounds), and five 30-round magazines for my M4 carbine (150 rounds). Most of the rest of the guys on the team were similarly kitted-out. We read the reports, we did some training exercises that proved to us how quickly we could run dry with a “standard” load-out, and after that, we all carried a LOT more ammo. Regular patrol deputies initially carried only 2 spare mags for their SIG’s on their duty belts, but most quickly upgraded to a minimum of 4 spare mags in a quad magazine holder.

What about the armed private citizen? I know there are some folks who figure that if they carry a fully-loaded gun, they’re GTG. And honestly, since the chances of getting into a gunfight as a private citizen are miniscule, it’s hard to argue with them. But I do argue with them.  They’ve already acknowledged that there is risk out there, which is the reason they carry a gun in the first place. If a person is already carrying a deadly weapon, why not carry a spare magazine as well? The extra weight is too much? It’s inconvenient to add a mag carrier to your concealment rig? Come on!

I strongly recommend the armed citizen should carry at least one fully loaded spare magazine on his person at all times. 

I also strongly recommend the armed citizen to select a hi-capacity autoloading handgun as his primary weapon. I used to carry a revolver or a 1911 as my primary weapon, but over time I came to realize the folly of that. I now carry a Glock 19 as my primary weapon, but I’d be equally happy with a Springfield XD, S&W M&P, or SIG 229. I don’t care about caliber, as I have stated before. But I do care about having enough rounds on my person to finish a gunfight, if one should break out. 

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Welcome to our upgraded website!

Well, we finally went live with the website upgrade today, and I’m feeling really good about that! 

This upgrade will make registering for classes MUCH easier online, and we will soon have digital downloads available on the website as well, including a digital version of the Tactical Anatomy Instructor Manual (1st edition). I’ve been reaaaalllllllyyyy busy with some hard Real Life issues for the past few months (no, none of which involve Medical Malpractice or criminal charges, LOL), which has taken away from my time on the rewrite of the Manual, but rest assured that by autumn (or what passes for autumn down here in the west Texas mesquite brush!) the 2nd edition will be available. 

The 2nd edition will contain all of the good stuff folks have come to know and love in the 1st edition, but will have new text chapters on Adult Learning Theory for the firearms instructor, range training drills for live fire and NLTA (SIMS and Airsoft), as well as an update on MILO scenarios shot using Tactical Anatomy hit zones, and how to use them. I think a LOT of folks will be interested in the chapter I’m currently writing, which consists of reports of successful real-time, real-world shootings by LE/military personnel who used their SXRV training to bring their deadly force situation to a swift and righteous conclusion. I’m considering including a chapter touching on the basics of Tactical Treatment of Gunshot Wounds as well, but it remains to be seen whether I can get that down to a manageable size. If I can’t, I’m just gonna have to make it its own book.

Changes in the printing/publishing industry are forcing us all toward a new paradigm. I will not be printing any more copies of the 1st edtion of the Tactical Anatomy Instructor Manual, because costs are prohibitive and there are simply much better ways of getting this information out to folks who need it. The 2nd edition will be available in two formats: as a digital download direct from the TAS website, or as print-on-demand hard copy book available from an internet publisher. Both will be cheaper than the current sale price, because I won’t have to be eating the obscene costs of printing these books myself as I have been doing since 2006.

I promise you I am working as hard as I can to get this second edition up and available for y’all, but like I said, Real Life intrudes mightily on me at present so I can’t promise a specific deadline. 

As for folks waiting for their member status to be approved… Now that we have the new website up, you will be getting some good news soon. There’s a ton of y’all, though, so it may take me a week or two. I review every membership application personally, and that takes time. Please be patient and I’ll get it done as fast as I can.  

On another e-front, I’m in the process of putting together some video downloads as well, which will come online as production moves forward. I’m a neophyte in the world of Youtube, but it seems that folks want to see prospective instructors in action before they plunk down their hard-earned cash for a class, which is totally reasonable as far as I’m concerned. There are so many jackasses out there selling ridiculous “training” that is as likely to get you killed or prosecuted (and always fleeced) that I believe it behooves anyone wanting to advance his deadly force skillset to seriously check my training out. So I’m going to be putting out a few Youtube videos in the next few months, which will also be available here on the TAS website once I get them produced. 

Please be warned… the first couple of videos are gonna be rough. I’ve been recording them on my iPhone, and using editing software to put them together. Whenever I get a few days off ER call and have respite from my Real Life issues, I’ll be driving into Town where Best Buy lives to buy a decent digital video camera. Until then, it’s gonna be grainy and edgy… but I hope the message will be clear enough. 

In other news, we are a GO for both SXRV classes in Saukville, WI, on July 12 and 13. Class registration is limited and filling fast, so do NOT delay if you want to sign up. I can’t take more than 30 people per class. 

OK. That’s about all I have to say about that, as Forrest Gump would say.

Tactical is as tactical does, it doesn’t matter a damn what color you paint your gear. Scouts out. 


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Shooting with Xray Vision for Civilians


Every year the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report and other Department of Justice documents demonstrate that private citizens used deadly force justifiably in self-defense roughly twice as often as police do. Dr. Gary Kleck in his landmark study published in the Journal of the American Medical Assocation in 1996 proved that private citizens use firearms in defense against criminals more than two million times annually.

Given these facts, and recognizing that Americans’ right to keep, bear, and use firearms is guaranteed by the Second Amendment of the Constitution, Tactical Anatomy Systems™ is honored to offer the same training in 3D target visualization to qualified private citizens as we offer to police. By “qualified”, we mean anyone who can legally own/carry a firearm and provide proof of good character (e.g., a valid concealed carry license).

Our 8-hour Tactical Anatomy for Civilians class includes all the classroom topics covered in our law enforcement Shooting With Xray Vision class, and special emphasis is given to understanding of the judicious use of deadly force, from state statutes and U.S. case law.

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Shooting with Xray Vision (SXRV)


This class was developed to train law enforcement personnel in anatomically effective targeting in an Officer Involved Shooting. In other words, we teach cops where to place their bullets for optimum results.

This class gives cops the tools they need to visualize vital human anatomy in 3 dimensions from any presentation or angle. In the past ten years thousands of officers have been trained in SXRV, and reports from these officers and departments tell us that SXRV-trained officers are stopping their opponents more quickly, fewer officers are taking return fire, and round accountability is drastically increased.

SXRV is designed to give any officer or firearms trainer the tools he or she needs to not only shoot more effectively, but to train others in the system with a minimum of expense to the department.

Topics covered in this class include:

• Ethics and U.S. case law of use of deadly force

• Terminal ballistics

• Gunshot wounds and incapacitation

• Vital human anatomy and physiology

• Practical classroom training in 3D visualization

• Simulated and/or live fire 3D targeting

This is an 8-hour class and is POST-certified in several states. Attendees should bring a notebook, colored markers, duty belt with sidearm, and 250 rounds of ammunition.

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Website Update, New Classes’s website is undergoing a major overhaul. The “old” software that my webmaster used to build this site originally is now obsolete and unsupported, so we’re having to upgrade to new programs. The website will look very much the same as the old one, but the stuff working in the background will be faster and more efficient.

You will probably notice a couple of cool new things show up when we go live, and other stuff that will be added over the next several months. For one thing, we are going to have the Tactical Anatomy Instructor Manual digitized and available as a download from the website. Hard copies of the book will still be available for purchase, but the costs of printing are so high that I will be able to sell you a downloaded copy of the book for about 2/3 the price of a hard copy.  Another cool feature of the new website will be that upcoming classes will be available for online registration and payment. We had a real hard time getting that to work in the old website but my webmaster has upgraded the software so we can do it efficiently in the new website. We will also have downloadable videos, of classes and of some other cool stuff. Video downloads will be split into two categories, with the more graphic/sensitive stuff being available to members only.

Speaking of upcoming classes, here’s what I’ve got scheduled for the next few months:

Shooting With Xray Vision (law enforcement and military personnel only) at Saukville Policed Department, Saukville, WI, July 12, 2013

Shooting With Xray Vision for Civilians, Saukville Police Department, July 13, 2013

Shooting With Xray Vision (one class open to both LE and civilians), Evergreen Sportsmen’s Club, Olympia, WA, October 7, 2013.

Registration for all 3 classes will be accessible within the next couple of weeks when the new website goes live. If you want to nail down your spot prior to that, shoot me an email at and I’ll get you squared away. 

One negative effect of the rebuild is that I have had to suspend adding new members to the site temporarily… so if you have been waiting for your membership to be activated, this is the reason for the delay. We should be able to activate all of your memberships shortly.

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Tactical Treatment of Gunshot Wounds

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Tactical Anatomy SystemsTM  offers several options for training in the treatment of trauma in the tactical setting: 4-hr Basic, 8-hr Intermediate, and 16-hr Advanced  level courses. Both the Intermediate and Advanced courses are detailed enough that upon completion you should have all the Instructor tools you need to go home and train your whole cadre or department. These courses are designed for SWAT and military personnel, not EMT’s. Their purpose is to train operators in the core techniques needed to save the life of a buddy, a civilian casualty, or even oneself in the tactical environment.

These courses have been developed over several years out of my trauma experience as a certified Emergency Physician, an EMS Medical Director, and after taking tactical medicine classes offered by colleagues around the country. The curriculum of these courses continues to evolve as more information comes my way from tactical medics and docs returning from the Sandbox and elsewhere.

So what does Tactical Anatomy ‘s  TTGSW class consist of? To be honest, it depends on how much time you allot for training, and the level of skill and training the class has coming in the doors. My most basic TTGSW class is a 4-hour block that covers the basic principles of field treatment of gunshot wounds, edged weapons wounds, and blast trauma, with hands-on practical exercises in using the basic survival tools that every soldier or cop should have on hand in a violent confrontation. If we have a more advanced group with more time, we go into more advanced scenario-based training incorporating simulated wounds and simulated-fire and live-fire environments, officer-down extrication procedures, airway management, and IV access.


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Boston Terrorist

 I realize that my blog isn’t exactly FOX news, so this message isn’t likely to get to very many cops before this is all over and done with, but still I am doing what I can. 

Word out this morning is that the surviving terrorist is wearing a bomb vest. 

Anyone who has taken my training, or similar training, knows that the ONLY solution to a bomb vest is to put a bullet through this guy’s brainstem before he can detonate the explosives. The best way to do this is with a rifle at a safe distance. I don’t know how much explosive he’s got on him, so I can’t tell you what a “safe” distance is in this case, but I would guess that 50 yards would be about right. Anyone with experience from the Sandbox on this, please feel free to contact me ( and I will post updated radius intel. 

Please be clear on this, I am NOT advocating assassinating this man. But there may be no other alternative that will not cost the lives of law enforcement officers and/or civilian bystanders. 

Do NOT approach this man if you identify him, until/unless his bomb vest and/or triggering mechanism/BHG (brain housing group) have been neutralized. 

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Why No-one Needs a 380

Last week I explained why everyone should have a 9mm. This week I’m going to explain  why no one needs a 380. I realize this is going to upset some people, but the truth is the truth, and I’ve done enough research on this topic to have confidence I know the truth about this topic. 

Now, first thing: just because I say you don’t need a 380 doesn’t mean I disapprove of you wanting or having a 380, or even a bunch of 380’s. We all have pet calibers and guns that we own and shoot for the sheer pleasure of it, and there’s nothing wrong with that. I have a couple little 32 H&R Magnum revolvers that are a hoot, for example. But I for damn sure don’t carry them as defensive tools. 

A handgun is a relatively anemic fighting tool when compared to more serious combat arms such as rifles, shotguns, and crew-served weapons. Those of us who carry handguns for defensive purposes should do so with the understanding that the fighting handgun is not a definitive solution, but a practical one. The fighting handgun is a compromise between compactness and portability on the one hand and lethal force utility on the other. In other words, a handgun is the smallest and most packable firearm you can get, but it’s also the weakest firearm you can get. 

So since we’ve already hobbled ourselves by carrying something that’s less effective than a long arm, my view on this is that we shouldn’t give ourselves an extra handicap by carrying a handgun chambered for a cartridge that is demonstrably ineffective. 

I often refer to the “service calibers” in my work. These are the calibers that are carried by law enforcement and military personnel here in the USA, and abroad. These calibers have all been tested and found to be adequate in gunfighting both in the ballistics lab and on the street. These calibers are 9x19mm (9mm Luger), 357 Sig, 40 S&W, and 45 ACP, in autopistols, and 38 Special, 357 Magnum, and 44 Special in revolvers. (There are a few bigger calibers out there such as the 41 Magnum, 44 Magnum, 45 Colt, 50 AE, and others that are carried by a lawman or two here and there, but they’re not commonly issued calibers, so I exclude them from the general term of Service Calibers.) 

All of the above-named service calibers have been thoroughly tested and meet the FBI ballistics protocols established in 1986. Jacketed hollowpoint (JHP) bullets in these calibers will penetrate 10-12″ of standard ballistic gelatin after passing through 4 layers of denim, and the bullets will expand reliably. Moreover, most of these bullets will penetrate intermediate barriers (e.g. laminated automobile glass) and still perform to an adequate standard in gelatin. 

However, almost no 380 ACP ammunition that I have personally tested or witnessed being tested will meet the FBI ballistic performance minimums. I was at a class last March at a SWAT conference at which a ballistics test expert from Federal/ATK gave a very impressive and thorough demonstration of the performance of various LE ammo (from Federal/Speer as well as other manufacturers). He shot ballistic gelatin blocks with all kinds of guns and ammo, through all kinds of intermediate barriers, and favorably impressed the class attendees with just about everything, even little 38 snubbies. But when it came to the 380, the results were dismal. One member of the class had his new pocket BUG, a Ruger LCP 380, and we watched it perform. The little 90 gr bullets barely penetrated 5 inches of bare gelatin, and half of that through 4 layers of denim. 

Folks, that’s not performance you can stake your life on. 

It may be comfortable to carry a tiny 380 caliber pistol, but it sure as hell ain’t comforting when you know how anemic this cartridge is. And it simply doesn’t make sense to down-grade to a 380 when there are ultra-compact pistols like the Kahr PM9/CW9 chambered in 9x19mm that are as small as most 380’s. 

As my good friend Mas Ayoob often says, “Friends don’t let friends carry mouseguns.”  I think that’s good advice for all of us, and if you’re a member of my website, you’re a friend, so I need to pass this bit of wisdom on to you. Don’t carry a 380 for personal defense. Just don’t do it.